EC2 EBS Backup Python script

This is simple EC2 backup script that snapshots listed EBS volumes daily. Script keeps maximum number of daily, weekly and monthly snapshots per volume and checks if daily backup has already been done or in progress, so it does not make duplicates for single day.


1. Ec2 command line tools.
Check that you can run them from command line

$ ec2-describe-snapshots
SNAPSHOT	snap-070cba6c	vol-123123	completed	2012-04-19T02:06:54+0000	100%	457025778133 root
SNAPSHOT	snap-170cba7c	vol-455445	completed	2012-04-19T02:07:09+0000	100%	457025778133	10 root

2. Fabric administration and deployment scripting tool

Install with easy_install or pip

<pre>$ sudo easy_install fabric</pre>

See for more details

3. The script.
Copy following to and replace the BACKUP_VOLS array with your own volumes and their descriptions. Script is also available in GitHub.

import os, sys, time
import dateutil.parser
from datetime import date, timedelta, datetime

from fabric.api import (local, settings, abort, run, lcd, cd, put)
from fabric.contrib.console import confirm
from fabric.api import env

# for each volume, define the how many daily, weekly and monthly backups
# you want to keep. For weekly monday's backup is kept and for the each month
# the one from 1st day.
	'vol-abc1234': {'comment': ' root', 'days': 7, 'weeks': 4, 'months': 4},
	'vol-1234565': {'comment': ' database', 'days': 7, 'weeks': 4, 'months': 4},

today =

snapshots = {}
hastoday = {}
savedays = {}	# retained snapshot days for each volume

for (volume, conf) in BACKUP_VOLS.items():
	daylist = savedays[volume] = []
	# last n days
	for c in range(conf['days'] - 1, -1, -1):
		daylist.append(today - timedelta(days=c))
	# last n weeks (get mondays)
	monday = today - timedelta(days=today.isoweekday() - 1)
	for c in range(conf['weeks'] - 1, 0, -1):
		daylist.append(monday - timedelta(days=c * 7))
	# last n months (first day of month)
	for c in range(conf['months'] - 1, -1, -1):
		daylist.append(datetime(today.year, today.month - c, 1).date())

SNAPSHOTS = local('ec2-describe-snapshots', capture=True).split('\n')

SNAPSHOTS = [tuple(l.split('\t')) for l in SNAPSHOTS if l.startswith('SNAPSHOT')]

for (_, snapshot, volume, status, datestr, progress, _, _, _) in SNAPSHOTS:
	snapshotdate = dateutil.parser.parse(datestr).date()
	if volume in BACKUP_VOLS:
		if snapshotdate == today:
			hastoday[volume] = {'status': status, 'snapshot': snapshot, 'progress': progress.replace('%', '')}
		if volume not in snapshots:
			snapshots[volume] = []
		snapshots[volume].append((snapshot, status, snapshotdate))

for snapshotlist in snapshots.values():
	snapshotlist.sort(key=lambda x: x[2], reverse=True)

for volume in BACKUP_VOLS.keys():
	if volume not in snapshots:
		snapshots[volume] = []

for (volume, snapshotlist) in snapshots.items():
	for (snapshot, status, date) in snapshotlist:
		datestr = date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
		print "%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s" % (volume, snapshot, status, datestr, BACKUP_VOLS[volume]['comment'])

def status():

def backup(dryrun=False):
	for (volume, snapshotlist) in snapshots.items():
		if volume in hastoday:
			print '%s has %s%% %s snapshot %s for today "%s"' % (volume,
			print 'creating snapshot for %s "%s"' % (volume, BACKUP_VOLS[volume]['comment'])
			snapshotlist.insert(0, ('new', 'incomplete', today))
			if not dryrun:
				local('ec2-create-snapshot %s -d "%s"' % (volume, BACKUP_VOLS[volume]['comment']))

	for (volume, snapshotlist) in snapshots.items():
		for (snapshot, _, date) in snapshotlist:
			if not date in savedays[volume]:
				datestr = date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
				print "deleting %s %s for %s (%s)" % (snapshot, datestr, volume, BACKUP_VOLS[volume]['comment'])
				if not dryrun:
					with settings(warn_only=True):
						local('ec2-delete-snapshot %s' % snapshot)

def dryrun():
	print """

*** DRY RUN ***


You can dry run the script first to see what it would do

$ fab -f dryrun

To make actual backup

$ fab -f backup

Example output

$ fab -f backup
[localhost] local: ec2-describe-snapshots
vol-abc1234	snap-48fe4023	completed	2012-04-24 database
vol-abc1234	snap-23863a48	completed	2012-04-23 database
vol-abc1234	snap-838131e8	completed	2012-04-20 database
vol-abc1234	snap-1b0cba70	completed	2012-04-19 database
vol-abc1234	snap-0d4ffb66	completed	2012-04-17 database
vol-1234565	snap-42fe4029	completed	2012-04-24 root
vol-1234565	snap-25863a4e	completed	2012-04-23 root
vol-1234565	snap-858131ee	completed	2012-04-20 root
vol-1234565	snap-1f0cba74	completed	2012-04-19 root
vol-1234565	snap-034ffb68	completed	2012-04-17 root

creating snapshot for vol-abc1234 " database"
[localhost] local: ec2-create-snapshot vol-abc1234 -d " database"
SNAPSHOT	snap-8ccd74e7	vol-abc1234	pending	2012-04-25T02:18:58+0000		457025778133	50 database
creating snapshot for vol-1234565 " root"
[localhost] local: ec2-create-snapshot vol-1234565 -d " root"
SNAPSHOT	snap-86cd74ed	vol-1234565	pending	2012-04-25T02:19:03+0000		457025778133	8 root

deleting snap-0d4ffb66 2012-04-17 for vol-abc1234 ( database)
[localhost] local: ec2-delete-snapshot snap-0d4ffb66
SNAPSHOT	snap-0d4ffb66
deleting snap-034ffb68 2012-04-17 for vol-1234565 ( root)
[localhost] local: ec2-delete-snapshot snap-034ffb68
SNAPSHOT	snap-034ffb68


If you try to run it again, it will notify about already running backups


vol-abc1234 has 55% pending snapshot snap-8ccd74e7 for today " database"
vol-1234565 has 100% completed snapshot snap-86cd74ed for today " root"


2 Responses to EC2 EBS Backup Python script

  1. Bruno Cassol says:

    This is very useful. Thanks!

  2. Thanks for the script, in case of databases, I found this very useful piece of information:

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